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A compressed audio optical disc, MP3 CD, or MP3 CD-ROM or MP3 DVD is an optical disc (usually a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R or 4 that contains digital audio 4 the MP3 file format. Discs are written in the "Yellow Book" 4 узнать больше format (used 4 CD-ROMs and DVD-ROMs), as opposed to the Red Book 4 audio format (used for CD-DA audio CDs).

CD-ROM - Wikipedia

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The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company Denon in 4.

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It was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, and adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553 MiB. CD-ROM was then introduced by Denon and Sony at a Japanese computer show in 1984.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Computers can read—but not write to or erase—CD-ROMs, i.
During the 1990s, CD-ROMs нажмите для деталей popularly used to distribute and for computers and.
Some CDs, calledhold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on awhile data such as software or digital video is only usable on a computer such as format PC CD-ROMs.
The CD-ROM format was developed by Japanese company in 1982.
It was an extension ofand adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a storage capacity of 553.
CD-ROM was then introduced by Denon and at a Japanese computer show in 1984.
The Yellow Book is the that defines the format of CD-ROMs.
One of a set of that contain the for all CD formats, the Yellow Book, standardized by Sony and in 1983, specifies a format for discs with a maximum capacity of 650 MiB.
A CD-ROM in the tray of a 4 open DVD-ROM drive.
CD-ROMs are identical in appearance toand data are stored and retrieved in a very similar manner 4 differing from audio CDs in the standards used to store the data.
Discs are made from a 1.
The most common size of CD-ROM is 120 mm in diameter, though the smaller standard with an 80 mm diameter, as well as in numerous non-standard sizes and molds e.
A is shone onto the reflective surface of the disc to read the pattern of pits and lands "pits", with the gaps between them referred to as "lands".
Because the depth of the pits is approximately one-quarter to one-sixth of the wavelength of the laser light used to read the disc, the reflected 's is shifted in relation to the incoming beam, causing and reducing the reflected beam's intensity.
This is converted into binary data.
The CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original standard for CD audio.
Other standards, such as 4 forfurther define formats based on the CD-ROM specifications.
The Yellow Book itself is not freely available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA.
There are several standards that define how to structure data files on 4 CD-ROM.
The ISO 13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO 9660, and a subset of it evolved into the format, which was adopted for.
The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a orand is called.
This includes CIRCEFMand the 4 of for coding the bits into the physical surface of the CD.
The structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are also derived from the Red Book.
Like audio CDs CD-DAa CD-ROM sector contains 2,352 of user data, composed of 98 frames, each consisting of 33-bytes 24 bytes for the user data, 8 4 for error correction, and 1 byte for the subcode.
Unlike audio CDs, the data stored in these sectors https://ugra.site/100/gel-penka-arkadiya.html to any type of digital data, not audio samples encoded according to the audio CD specification.
To structure, address and protect this data, the CD-ROM standard further defines two sector основываясь на этих данных, Mode 1 and Mode 2, which describe two different layouts for the data inside a sector.
A a group of sectors inside a CD-ROM only contains sectors in the same mode, but if multiple tracks are present in a CD-ROM, each track can have its 4 in a different mode from the rest of the tracks.
They can also coexist with audio CD tracks as well, which is the case of.
Both Mode 1 and 2 sectors use the first 16 bytes for information, but differ in the remaining 2,336 bytes due to the use of bytes.
Unlike an audio CD, a CD-ROM cannot rely on error concealment by ; a higher reliability of the retrieved data is required.
To achieve improved error correction and detection, Mode 1, used mostly for digital data, adds a 32-bit CRC code for error detection, and a third layer of using a Reed-Solomon 4 Code RSPC.
Mode 4 therefore contains 288 bytes per sector for error detection and correction, leaving 2,048 bytes per sector available for data.
Mode 2, which is more appropriate for image or video data where perfect reliability may be a little bit less importantcontains no additional error detection or correction bytes, having therefore 2,336 available data bytes per sector.
Note that both modes, like audio CDs, still benefit from the at the frame level.
Before being stored on a https://ugra.site/100/massazhnaya-krovat-lotus-care-health-plus-m-1014.html with the techniques described above, each CD-ROM sector is scrambled ссылка на страницу prevent some problematic patterns from showing up.
These scrambled sectors then follow the same encoding process described in the Red Book in order to be finally stored on a CD.
The playing time of a standard CD is 74 minutes, or 4,440 seconds, contained in 333,000 blocks or.
Therefore, the net capacity of a Mode-1 CD-ROM is 682 or, equivalently, 650.
For 80 minute CDs, the capacity is 737 MB 703 MiB.
It was intended as a bridge between CD-ROM and and was published by and in 1991.
CD-ROM XA defines two new sector layouts, called Mode 2 Form 1 and Mode 2 Form 2 ссылка are different from the original Mode 2.
XA Mode 2 Form 1 4 similar to the Mode 1 structure described above, and can interleave with XA Mode 2 Form 2 sectors; it is used for data.
продолжить чтение Mode 2 Form 2 has 2,324 bytes of user data, and is similar to the standard Mode 2 but with error detection bytes added though no error correction.
The file size of a disc image created in raw mode is always a multiple of 2,352 bytes the size of a block.
Disc image formats that store raw CD-ROM sectors include, and.
The size of a disc image created from the data in the sectors will depend on the type of sectors it is using.
For example, if a CD-ROM mode 1 image is created by extracting only each sector's data, its size will be a multiple of 2,048; this is usually the case for.
Recordable and rewritable discs are manufactured by a different method, whereby the data are recorded Каретка Stronglight JP400 итальянская резьба (70 x 120) them by a laser changing the properties of a dye or material in a process that is often referred to as "".
A standard 120 mm, 700 MB CD-ROM can actually hold about 737 MB 703 MiB of data with error correction or 4 MB total.
In comparison, a single-layer can hold 4.
Capacities of Compact Disc types 90 and 99 minute discs are not standard Type Sectors Data mode 1 max.
MB 8 cm 94,500 193.
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June 2014 The laser system of a CD-ROM drive CD-ROM discs are read using CD-ROM drives.
Virtually all modern CD-ROM drives can also play as well as and other data standards when used with the right software.
The laser beam is directed onto the disc via an opto-electronic tracking module, which then detects whether the beam has been reflected or scattered.
At this data rate, the track moves along under the laser spot at about 1.
To maintain this 4 velocity as the optical head moves to different positions, the angular velocity is varied from 500 at the inner edge to 200 rpm at the outer edge.
By increasing the speed at which the disc is spun, data can be transferred at greater rates.
For example, a CD-ROM drive that can read at 8× speed spins the disc at 1600 to 4000 rpm, giving a linear velocity of 9.
Above 12× speed most drives read at CAV, constant rpm so that the motor is not made to change from one speed to another as the head seeks from place to place on the disc.
In CAV mode the "×" number denotes the transfer rate at the outer edge of the disc, where Межкомнатная с ПВХ-пленкой Альфа орех (П-18) is a maximum.
As of 2004, the fastest transfer rate commonly available is about 52× or 10,400 rpm and 7.
Higher spin speeds are limited by the strength of the polycarbonate plastic of which the discs are made.
However, improvements can still be obtained using multiple laser pickups больше на странице demonstrated by the TrueX 72× which uses seven laser beams and a rotation speed of approximately 10×.
The first 12× drive was released in late 1996.
Above 12× speed, there are problems with vibration and heat.
CAV drives give speeds up to 30× at the outer edge of the disc with the same rotational speed as a standard constant linear velocity CLV 12×, or 32× with a slight increase.
Problems with vibration, owing to limits on achievable symmetry and strength in mass-produced media, mean that CD-ROM drive speeds have not massively increased since the late 1990s.
Over 10 years later, commonly available drives vary between 24× slimline and portable units, 10× spin speed and 52× typically CD- and read-only units, 21× spin speedall using CAV to achieve their claimed "max" speeds, with 32× through 48× most common.
Even so, these speeds can cause poor reading drive error correction having become very sophisticated in response and even shattering of poorly made or physically damaged media, with small cracks rapidly growing into catastrophic breakages when centripetally stressed at 10,000—13,000 rpm i.
High rotational speeds also produce undesirable noise from disc vibration, rushing air and the spindle motor itself.
Most 21st-century drives allow forced low speed modes by use of small utility programs for the sake of safety, accurate reading or silence, and will automatically fall back if numerous sequential read errors 4 retries are encountered.
Other methods of improving read speed were trialled such as using multiple optical beams, increasing https://ugra.site/100/lotok-kabelniy-lestnichniy-dkc-ulh615-100-h-500-h-6000-mm.html up to 72× with a 10× spin speed, but along with other technologies like 90~99 minute recordable media and "double density" recorders, their utility was nullified by the introduction of consumer drives capable of consistent 36× CD-ROM speeds 4× DVD or higher.
A similar stratification effect has since been seen in DVD development where maximum speed has stabilised at 16× CAV with exceptional cases between 18× and 22× and capacity at 4.
CD-Recordable drives are often sold with three different speed ratings, one speed for write-once operations, one for re-write operations, 4 one for read-only operations.
The speeds are typically listed in that order; i.
Common data transfer speeds for CD-ROM drives Transfer speed 1× 150 1.
This differs somewhat from protection in that it is usually implemented in both the media and the software itself.
The CD-ROM itself may contain "weak" sectors to make copying the disc more difficult, and additional data that may be читать полностью or impossible to copy to a CD-R or disc image, but which the software checks ICE AQUA туалетная вода мужская each time it is run to ensure an original disc and not an unauthorized copy is present in the computer's CD-ROM drive.
This is a counterpart to the Source Identification Code SIDan eight character code beginning with "" that is usually stamped on discs produced by CD recording plants.
Archived from PDF on 2006-10-22.
Here comes Diamond with the first 12X CD-ROM.
Retrieved October 24, 2007.
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